Genetic counseling is actually a branch of medical genetics that examines the likelihood of developing genetic diseases and provides appropriate strategies for preventing repeat offspring with the goal of a future and healthy generation.
The marriage of both non-familial individuals has a potential risk of about 2-3%. This is higher in marriage with relatives and is different in terms of kinship.
Although geneticists do not hesitate to marry third-degree relatives, provided that there is no family history of hereditary diseases, it’s best to consult a genetic counselor before marriage in any case, if possible.
One of the main goals of genetic counseling is to identify the risk of a hereditary illness in pregnancy.
Genetic counseling is important in all stages of life, but the following is commonly categorized:
Genetic counseling before marriage
This advice, which is most common in Iran, is suggested to people who are going to marry in particular with their loved ones and at the same time worry about having their future child with a genetic condition.
Family marriage counseling
Family marriage is a marriage in which couples have a kinship relationship with similar and common ancestors and genes. Thousands of rare hereditary diseases are now known to cause child-bearing genes to infect their children through inherited genes. This risk is higher in family marriages due to common genes, but it does not mean that there is no danger in non-familial marriages, but the risk is lower.
Advice before and during pregnancy
They are offered to families who are planning a pregnancy and are somehow worried about the health of their next generation. Like pregnancy under the age of 18 and over 35, having a child with a genetic disorder, one of the parents has a genetic disorder or a systemic illness, a history of repeated abortion or infertility.
Advice and Disability Risk Assessment The existence of previous records of disability in a person or family member can be a reason for family concern and referral to identify the cause of disability, disability, or computing the risk of repeat disability in future generations.
The purpose of the genetic counseling can be one of the following
1. Helping to better understand genetic disease
2. Symptoms and diagnostic methods
3- Better prediction and control of the symptoms
4. Preventing or recurring illness
5- Propose suitable solutions such as:
Pregnancy diagnosis (PND)
Ovarian Implantation Diagnosis (PGD)
Natural pregnancy replacement methods
Genetic Specific Tests
What is essential for genetic counseling?
v In kinship weddings
v Chronic or progressive neuromuscular disorders
v Pregnancy before age 18 and over 35
v Disruption of physical growth and catholyosis
v Behavioral and mental disorders
v Incidence of congenital defects
v Repetition history in the family
v The history of previous children to genetic disease
v metabolic disorders, obesity, diabetes
v Disabilities and mental retardation
v Appearance of abnormal organs
v Parents or family members have a disability record
v Any problems and physical disabilities
v Pregnant mother’s exposure to risk factors such as radiation, infection, chemicals, etc.
v Cancer Types
Congenital cardiovascular disease
v metabolic disorders
v Genital mutilation in puberty
v Identification of gene vector carriers such as thalassemia, hemophilia, and sickle cell anemia
v Concerned about the risk of a family history
v The history of infertility and infertility
v The history of frequent abortions and stills
v Blindness, Deafness
v Ultrasound or abnormal and suspicious screening tests
** At the Center for the Genetics of Medicine and Pajoteology, the Fajr Genetic Advice is conducted by expert geneticists approved by the Ministry of Health **
Different flow cytometric applications
v Immunofenotyping Acute and chronic leukemia,
v Plasma cell disease,
v Monitoring of treatment in leukemia,
v Determination of effective factors in prognosis of disease,
v Little review of immune cells
The most recent use of flow cytometry is the evaluation of surface antigens expressed on cells. But in addition, the cells may be examined by various methods to measure functional characteristics by flow cytometry. It is possible to determine the time variations of receptor expression or to measure the interaction of a cell with another cell. In addition, there is the possibility of evaluating changes in the activity of enzymes and membrane potential. Experiments can also be performed to demonstrate phagocytosis and release of bioactive molecules.
The main function of these separators is to separate the desired cell populations from the heterogenous population of the cells for further study. Generally speaking, if a cell or particle has unique physical or chemical properties, it can be easily identified by the flow sorter and separated from other cells.
The flow cytometry method is in the shadow of increasing the number of antibodies, tetramers and dyes produced for use in the evaluation of cellular activity as an important tool in the study of immune cells. It allows the types of cells in the blood sample The cultured cells are evaluated explicitly